- 1934 (Creation)
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The Knaurs Konversations-Lexikon published in 1934 reflected the antisemitic doctrine of the Nazi regime. This is manifest in the dictionary definition for Jews.
"Jews, initially the term for the members clannish to Judah, later the general denomination for all Israelis upon return from the Babylonian exile. They immigrated as Semitic nomadic people to Palestine (Moses, Josua) where they settled. Their religion is strictly monotheistic and they had fights with surrounding people of different faith. At the same time, they mixed races. Theocracy was replaced by monarchy (Saul, David, Salomon). The downfall set in after the separation into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Subordinate to Assyria since 722. See Babylon. Exile (597-536 B.C.). Persian province; Theocracy. Harassed by Syrian rulers, fight for liberation of the Maccabee (167 B.C.), national kingdom, conquest of Pompey (63 B.C.). Herod, king who was dependent on Rome (4 B.C.). Roman province under conservator. Rebellion 66 A.D.; destruction of Jerusalem by Titus 70 A.D. Compulsory change of residence of parts of the people. The new rebellion (see Bar Kochba) around 132 was put down violently. There were Jewish colonies all over the Roman Empire. The Jews were persecuted and emigrated to the East (Ashkenazim, Khozar territory near the volga) in the 8th Century and to the West (Sephardic). It reached its height in Spain under Arabic rule (Jewish-Arabic literature, Jehuda Halevi). Prosecution by inquisition and forced baptizing. Partly emigrated to the Netherlands. Jews were in Germany in the Rhine territory and in Eastern Germany since about 700. They were protected by the Emperor (“chamber servant”). Persecution since the crusades. Settlement in the ghettos. Gradually civil equivalence (in France 1791) in Germany between 1808-12 and ultimately in 1869. Emancipation (Moses, see Mendelssohn). Zionism founded 1897 by Th. Herzl. Anti-Jewish measures (see Anti-Semitism). At first, this were mainly based on religious reasons, since the late 19th Century this was based on the theories on race by Gobineau and H.St. Chamberlain. In 1933, in Germany the Aryan clause set in. The total number of Jews by the million, worldwide as calculated by people’s religious affiliation was 14.62. 4.8 million of who lived in the United States of America, 2.83 in Poland, 2.8 in Russia, 0.83 in Romania, 0.6 in Germany, 0.47 in Hungary, 0.35 in Czechoslowakia, 0.3 in England, 0.3 in Austria, 0.2 in Argentina, 0.17 in France, 0.16 in Lithuania, 0.16 in Turkey, 0.16 in Morocco, 0.15 in Palestine, 0.13 in Canada, 0.12 in the Netherlands, 0.11 in Greece, 0.1 in Latvia, 0.09 in Algeria, 0.09 in Iraq, 0.08 in Yugoslavia, 0.08 in Persia, 0.07 in Tunisia, 0.07 in Egypt, 0.06 in Abyssinia, 0.06 in Belgium, 0.06 in South Africa, 0.05 in Bulgary, 0.05 in Italy, 0.04 in Syria, 0.03 in Brazil, 0.02 in Australia, 0.02 in Switzerland."